Carrie and Tommy talk about his 555 synths, the OKAY and the Poly 555, and his upcoming arduino-based keyboard called the Scout, plus switches, light pipes, and 3D printing and design, while Carrie solders up his APC Atari Punk Console noise-maker.
Check out all of Tommy's cool musical inventions at www.oskitone.com
Carrie: Hello, how's it going? I am Carrie Sundra with Alpenglow industries. Welcome to the weekly Wednesday solder sesh, where we come and hang out and put something together! This week I'm super excited because I have Tommy Marshall from Oskitone. We're going to be putting together this kit right here, which is his APC Atari punk console. Also, I have his poly 555 which is an amazingly fun little synth that is made of 555 timers and is polyphonic. It has like one separate timer circuit for each key, which is simple and overkill and lovely.
Tommy: It's a joke instrument, yeah.
Carrie: Yes. It is an excellent joke instrument though.
Robyn soldered it all together and she had fun doing that and then tuned it. You can now see the extent of my piano skills. The pressure is on, I've never done this live before, so I'm probably going to screw it up. All right, here we go.
Carrie plays a halting rendition of Chopsticks. She obviously has little musical training.
That was chopsticks. So yes, that is the extent of my piano playing. I think all of the other songs I know are only one tone at a time, so they don't show it off quite as well.
Tommy: And Carrie, how many years of piano lessons were paid for, for chopsticks? Was that 4 years?
Carrie: Oh, well, well for chopsticks, I looked it up on the internet, so it was about five minutes of YouTube. Then I needed to refresh for this week. I really needed to prepare for that recital, so it was five more minutes on YouTube and maybe three practice sessions. Yeah.
Tommy: You know what, honestly, that's pretty good. 10 minutes
Carrie: patterns, right? Recognizing patterns and remembering the pattern. That's what it is for me, at least, because I'm not good enough to associate a sound with a particular key. So, for me, it's all, what is the physical position?
Tommy: The dirty secret of musicianship is that for a lot of instruments, especially guitars and stuff, it's all just patterns. You'll learn to do this little box or something and then some of you change the key and you'll play the same pattern in different spot.
Pianos are not great because this little layout doesn't lend for transposition easily. Transposition is where you change keys because the naturals and the accidentals, the whites and blacks are a totally arbitrary thing, and every key kind of looks different and your fingers do different things.
It’s like a muscle memory thing that you either learn or you don't, or maybe it doesn't matter. Maybe you have a keyboard that does a key transpose or something. Anyway, the point is that they're easier instruments for knowing how to play. A keyboard is good because it's like a known thing, right? There's infinite frequencies and keyboards are like, there's just this many and it's multiplied, and they always look like this, and it's been that way for a long, long time. So, you can look at any keyboard and be like, yeah, I basically know how to play that.
Carrie: I'm going to start to solder up the APC while we do a little bit of chatting. So, I'm super curious about so many things. First maybe tell us, how did you get started on the whole 555 musical instrument kit path? How many 555 timer-based instruments do you have?
Tommy: I have two that I'm selling and probably three, if you count the old OKAY instruments.
Carrie: Oh yeah, what happened to the old OKAY instruments?
Tommy: They were really hard to put together, they took a long time. I thought the ROI on them, as a maker, was really low. I thought if you're spending a long time on something, it should give you more.
As a one-person maker business, I field all the support questions. So, I saw the most earnest effort not get rewarded and all these questions that were like, I should have just designed this better. I should have made this a lot easier for folks to put together.
Carrie: That was like the first thing that you put out right?
Tommy: Yeah, it was, it was a real learning exercise. Cool. Um, and I, I hope, I hope that everything that I make, I get to learn from the previous things, you know what I mean? So, I hope that I learned from the OKs failures and put those lessons into the poly 555 and now the new Scout thing, which just launched the other day.
Carrie: Yeah, the poly 555 was pretty easy going together.
Carrie: What inspired you to make your first 555 instrument? Take us down the twisted path of your brain.
Tommy: What can I say? I learned how to solder around 2013. I wanted a hobby that was technical, that didn't use a computer, and electronics fits the bill. I did the things that hobbyists do, I did various kits and stuff, and I started building my own circuits on breadboards. One of the first things that folks will do is blink and LED. It turns out if you blink a pin real fast and it's hooked up to a speaker, you’d get a little tone. If you give it the right components, you can fix the frequency of that tone. I'm a musician, so I put the things together and I was like, okay, I'll just make some instruments with these things. The OKAY which we've mentioned before and looks like this, was a ridiculous thing. It's a chunky boy. You put it on your shelf and it's like a little conversation piece. I think the poly 555 is also a conversation piece, but probably for different reasons.
You asked about 555 timers. I've used them because that's what I was kind of familiar with, but there are other ways to make square waves. I've made different, weird one-off things with different waves. Schmidt triggers, hex inverters, quiz me later on what the CD 4,000 numbers are for these because I don't remember. I liked the 555 because it's kind of like a running joke within the electronics community. For folks who don't know, you'll see anything, anything anywhere, and there will always be one comment like, “Ah, I should have used a 555.” like, no matter what it is. Save the world, man. I could've done it with a 555.
Carrie: I mean, you know, you can really do anything with the 555 timer. I think that's the main theme, right? Any circuit that exists could probably be made using a 555 timer.
So, APC stands for Atari punk console and is basically used to make fun and obnoxious Atari-like sounds.
Tommy: Yeah, APC makes some annoying sounds. It was made famous by Forrest Mims in one of his books for radio shack long, long ago. Seventies, I think. It's fun. It's obnoxious.
Carrie: I've said this before on previous streams, but my mom just hated nothing more than repetitive, eight bit arcade noises. They drove her crazy. I wasn't allowed to have a normal Nintendo console as a kid. I finally was able to get a game boy, pretty much because my dad got it for me. I used to be forced to wear the headphones a lot so that she didn't have to hear all of the noises, which you know, for me was a key part of the game. Right? Some of the best parts were all the fun noises.
Carrie: Let's see. Oh, yes. Don't bend the speakers leads. I am going to solder the wires and I saw that you include holes here for strain relief, which is super cool. That's always nice and something that I forget to do in my boards sometimes. So it's always nice to have a reminder. So feed it through its holes. I'm guessing that we want to feed them from the bottom to the top and then solder them over like this.
Tommy: I'm trying not to spoil it.
Carrie: I kind of want to see a photo. Because, it might make a difference whether the wires exit the bottom or the top of this board for routing purposes.
Tommy: There is a picture of a finished PCB at the top. But, there could be step-by-step photos, which isn't a bad idea.
Carrie: This is a small enough board though. I think you're fine with just one photo. Okay. So now those are bent over and I'm going to pull this through a little bit, just so these guys kind of are more or less in their final resting position. Making sure that red is to plus and black is to minus.
Tommy: One reason I like those relief holes on the PCP is that it kind of helps hold it in place while you're soldering, without those you're trying to binder clip it in, you're doing a blob or a tack or something. So, the relief is nice because it's a mechanical thing. I think that helps assemble it too. If you can spare the space on the board, I think it's always nice.
Carrie: So, we recently had a tantalum capacitor blow out. So I am now triple checking tantalum, capacitors. I really hope I have mine in the right way. I think I do. I think I do from the instructions, but I don't know, the one in your picture almost looks different maybe, but I don't know if I want to second guess myself right now.
Tommy: Let's see your board again.
Carrie: Let's see, I have the minus on the side next to the speaker. We might not be able to focus very much closer than that, but definitely the white is to white. Yeah, hoping that I don't blow things up.
Tommy: There's an electrolytic. There's a couple of ceramics on there.
Carrie: Yep. Just one electrolytic, one tiny one. Well shoot, should we, should we try it? Robyn definitely has some PTSD from that.
Tommy: All right.
Carrie: Okay, and I think our switch was to the off position probably since nothing's happening.
Tommy: I think it's good. Do you hear anything?
Carrie: I hear a little bit.
Tommy: So RV 103 is volumes. It's a quiet thing, thankfully.
Carrie: My mom would approve. It's pretty great. Well, it's cranked to 11.
Tommy: Yeah. Nigel Tufnell would like that.
Carrie: I'm going to try the other one, more tone and pitch. Oh, that's fun. That is definitely fun. All right. Let's put it in this case. I have some questions about your mad 3d modeling skills here. I am very impressed with this case. First of all, what printer do you have? Because I'm always interested to hear what printers people like.
Tommy: I got one of these Prusa’s, one of the bigger ones, not the latest, it's a couple of gen's old. I like the Prusa. All of that is in PLA, which is the standard relatively cheap stuff.
Carrie: The thing that I liked about this so much was that this slide is really, really nice. I look at this and I'm like, man, if I tried to print this, that under cling or the under the lip would be all sorts of crappy and I'd have to clean it out. It would just never quite work very well. So, when I got this and it just slid so smoothly, I was like, dang that's impressive. Can you share any tips or tricks you have for making parts that fit together so nicely? And, and do you have to do any finishing to these?
Tommy: I try very, very hard to design things that print nicely and don't require a lot of post work. Uh, rewind. When I design kits, I'm kind of designing for a couple of different audiences. 1. Is the electronics person, is this easy to solder? 2. Is it easy to assemble at the end? 3. Can your printer do this well? DFM design for manufacturability. What you’re appreciating there, and I thank you for appreciating it, is that the tongue and groove joints of that thing. This goes together pretty well because there's this trick you can do where, if you ever have to print something that goes out, instead of printing it as a T, you print it at a 45-degree angle.
Carrie: Yeah. Now I can kind of see that a little bit in the profile.
Tommy: The Scout’s enclosure kind of snaps together, but it uses the same tongue and groove joints with a lot of 45-degree angles. The last thing you want to be doing is like cutting out supports from very tiny places. A lot of things that I do unfortunately have to have supports because they're weird. But whenever I do that, I try to make them big things that you can clunk out easily or maybe things that don't really matter. A joint like that needs to be really tidy. If you're anything like me after you put this together, you’ll fidget with it and it’ll become a toy.
Carrie: Nice. So now I gotta fit the little switch in,which I think goes in that way. That seems to be proper.
Tommy: I'm curious what you would call a piece like that. There's this adage that one of the hardest things in engineering is naming things. I had the hardest time naming this little piece.
Carrie: You know, from an electronics perspective, I would call it a switch cap.
Slight caveat, this is super interesting because you have a vertical switch here. And yet you have a right-angle switch cap. That right angle switch cap, actually keys in here to the vertical switch. I would never have thought of doing that that way at all, because I would have just been like, oh, well, I'm just going to get a right-angle switch. Yeah.
Tommy: That would be the smart thing to do. Let me share a fun fact about my version of APC and it relates to the poly 555. So, the poly 555 has an L-shaped PCB and it's really big and expensive. Fab houses don't care if your thing is L-shaped or heart shaped or whatever shape, you get charged by the rectangle. So, I was getting charged for this big chunk of space that I wasn't using. I was wasting money. What I did was, I literally just grabbed that radio shack book. I was like, what is the circuit that I know that everybody will know? I very quickly did the step tone generator, and I threw it in that corner. I basically did nothing else. I kind of changed the pots on it, but it worked, and it was good enough for me. It existed like this just in PCB form for like a hundred of these. I had a lot of these PCBs before I ever started on the design for it.
Carrie: Bold, very bold. I like it.
Tommy: So that is why that switch is kind of weird, because I kind of thought that I would have a switch that exposed out of the top of the thing, like the switches right here. But it's a weird spot and to have that switch exposed out at the top, I think would have been ugly. So, I made it instead expose out the side., This switch cap, as you say, I call it a clutch because it’s clutched onto the actuator. I was careful not to call it a switch itself because it's not switching anything. It's kind of like an actuator on the actuator, I think that makes sense.
Carrie: Switch actuator is also something I believe I've heard for this type of thing. Especially when it's something like this, where you're translating motion into a different plane, because I generally associate switch caps with just going on the top.
Tommy: That’s what I thought too. I thought a switch cap is a thing that just goes on top.
Carrie: Yeah, so I think actuator might be the more proper term for it.
Tommy: I thought that actuator is the name of the part that sticks out of the switch too.
Tommy: Naming stuff is hard.
Carrie: Yeah, it is. It's hard to search for things too when you know what you're looking for, but you don't know what it's called by the people who are selling it. Learning terminology can be a real challenge.
Tommy: Yeah, this is something that I struggle with because I'm not an industrial designer. I'm not an electrical engineer. I don't know. I don't really know anything about anything.
Carrie: Well, you're doing a great job at both.
Tommy: I find myself just making up words all the time. My code is just littered with these words that probably don't mean anything to anybody else. I'm like, ah, somebody else looks at this code, I hope they understand this. I hope they can get it.
Carrie: I like it. I also have an L-shaped board and I did not come up with something as clever as your solution. I panelized it myself and I ordered them as a panel. So, I panelized it wit the cutouts, it was kind of shaped more like a flag, so I was able to nest them. The same thing, those boards were going to cost me almost twice as much money if I didn't do that. I did get the prototypes made by OSH park. It was funny, I even got a comment after I had ordered them, whoever processed the order was like, Ooh, nice nesting.
Carrie: It's a super fun build. I also think that it's super approachable kids, I think because it's not a kit that has a million different parts, you know, and you get a lot of really great instant gratification from it. I think it's awesome. So, tell us more about the Scout and could you play something on it or the poly 555.
Tommy: The Poly 555 Is this. It looks like this. There are 20 555 circuits, they're all identical It has keys. It's got this thumb wheel on the side. Like it's an old nineties Walkman. It doesn't slide together like the APC, but it uses a lot of the same enclosure parts and kind of screws together. There's some hitches here so this part is held together right there. And this screws together, it's basically top and bottom. It's takes 20 hours to print. There's a big old speaker in there and a nine volt battery.
Carrie: I love that there's an LED per key too.
Tommy: Next time you have me on, maybe I'll have a better camera set up, but you got to trust that I was playing that. I can do one blue scale and it's C blues and that's the only blue scale I can do.
So that is the Poly 555, available at Oskitone.com. The other thing that I launched Monday is called the Scout. It looks much smaller, much cuter, 17 keys powered by an atmega 328, which is the same microcontroller used by the Arduino UNO. It is called the scout because it is my first foray into microcontrollers. I don't really know much about much, but I knew that I wanted to get away from 555’s and I wanted to make something that could be done in a much shorter time. So, this takes about 45 minutes to put together to solder and assemble. It still takes like nine hours to print because you know, printers can only go so fast. It has the same kind of switch caps, switch clutch, the volume uses the same code as the APC, but it looks different. Instead of a Brody knob we have a little dimple and there's no spokes. It uses a lot of the same code. It has a line out, first time playing with headphone jacks. It's a stereo Jack, but it's wired as mono so you could use headphones and I tried to make it so that at max volume it won’t deafen you. It has a UART do you know what UART stands for? I don't remember.
Carrie: Universal asynchronous receive transmit? I think, I'm not sure if the U is universal or not.
Tommy: When you turn it on the APC has its LED exposed as does the poly 555.
Carrie: I love that light pipe action too, by the way. The “ah, do I really need a light pipe? No, I'll just work it into the print. “
Tommy: I will. I always want a light pipe. There are things that I keep coming back to. I always want to make a real light pipe. If I can figure out a design that uses them well and make sense to get them manufactured, I probably will because I just keep coming back to them.
Carrie: You know you can buy light pipes too, right? :)
Tommy: You know me, I have a disease called “not invented here,” which means I want to make everything from scratch. That's why all these knobs are like this. This is why I'm not using like off the shelf mini controllers or whatever. The Scout does not have an exposed LED instead, it's kind of a secret thing that when you turn on it, there's a little thing inside the thing. Also, the speaker is not exposed, the speaker is actually right here, and it uses the keys as a grill.
Bob asks, “Does the UART on the scout allow for reprogramming?” It does, you hook up an FTDI cable, sold separately, and you plug it into this and then your computer talks to it just like an Arduino Nano. I ship all the chips with a bootloader so that you can do that.
It sounds like this.
At this point Tommy holds the Scout up to the camera with one hand and plays it without the other, barely looking at the keys, making playing music look effortless.
Tommy: It is monophonic it, uh, monophonic means one note at a time. But yeah, it's fun. I think it's a nice little kit for folks new to electronics and people who are familiar with Arduino. I hope people like it. I put it out Monday. I'm still kind of promoting it a little bit. Thank you for the opportunity to promote it right here.
Carrie: Of course, of course!
Tommy: I'm hopeful that people like it, but I'm also hopeful that it unlocks me to do new, weird things. You know what I mean? Anytime I put something out, people are like, “can it do MIDI?” And I'm like it’s all analog. Like, it wouldn't be worth it. And people ask, “can do filters, what about envelopes?” This still doesn't really do any of that.
Carrie: This is more of an instrument than a synth, right? Like that's how I kind of think of it.
Tommy: Yeah. It's, it's I don't know. It's an overloaded word. When you say synth, that means a lot of different things for a lot of people.
Carrie: Well, you see, I know nothing about this! There's synth drama. I love it. I'm not surprised. I mean, you know, there is knitting drama. There is crocheting drama. There is spinning yarn drama. There is all sorts of drama in every community. So, it's like, of course there's synth drama and discussion about what is the meaning of synth and what exactly is the meaning of yarn and what constitutes a fabric? It's fun having those discussions,
Tommy: right? Yeah. I bet I love it about as much as you do. Anyway, I'm hopeful that this will unlock some of those things and I'm also hopeful that it will give me a foundation to start doing weirder things that are less keyboard-y. Pianos are like the 555 timers to me, it's like a known thing. There's value in using a thing that already has precedent and people have a general understanding of like the, the ins and outs of this thing, but we shouldn't be beholden to it. You know, the world is our oyster. Why shouldn't we do weird, weird stuff?!
Carrie: I like it.
Tommy: Maybe I'll do some weird stuff.
Carrie: I think you should do lots of weird stuff
Tommy: If people buy it, I will make it.
Carrie: yeah. I'm like, well, even if people don't buy it, I'll probably still make it, but that's not a very good business decision. I don't recommend that, but it does happen sometimes.
Tommy: Yeah, no, I hear ya. It's hard to be both an artist and a business person, you know, it's, uh, those two things can be at odds when they both meet up, it can be a little awkward.
Carrie: Yeah, definitely.
Well cool, this was super fun. Thank you so much for coming on and everything.
Tommy: Yeah, this was great. I'm so glad that it actually worked. Thank you for having me. Thank you for buying, buying my wacky things.
I also want to say, you know, I'm a big fan of you and of Alpenglow. And I recently learned what Alpenglow is. I love the poetry and the name and the mission. And I'm so excited for your new space, new expansion, your new people. I'm real jazzed about everything that y'all are going to do. And, uh, I'm weird on camera, but I will do this for you.
Carrie: Well, thank you because I feel like I'm weird on camera too. So, thank you for being weird on camera with me, I think it all works out. Cool. Cool. Cool. Well, awesome we'll definitely keep in touch with each other. Give Tommy @Oskitone a follow, give him some retweets, sharing the Scout love. He has really cool things, he has a range of stuff on his website and even has like a little sequencer that I also got at the same time.
That was a pretty inexpensive little kit so if you're not quite ready for the poly 555 yet, there's still a lot of cool stuff.
Tommy: I'm trying to better serve the markets out there. So, if you like my aesthetic, but you don't see something that is for you, let me know.
Cool. Thank you, Carrie.
Carrie: Thank you. And thank you everybody for watching, we will see you next time.
by: Carrie Sundra
A few weeks ago, I had the awesome opportunity to visit Debra Ansell of GeekMomProjects in real life. There are all sorts of colorful creations in her electronics lair, but this super cute Blob caught my eye. It had a happy bounciness to it, these great big googly eyes, and it lit up in fun patterns that were reactive to her voice. When she asked if I wanted to make one, I was like "HELL YEAH!"
She used a 200 light strand and bent each LED into a swirly pattern, and then zip-tied them to each other as she went around. I thought - hmmm, I wonder if you could do it without zip ties? After a few weird wraps at the start, it occured to me that I could totally knit the wire together, making one stitch per LED. I did this all with my fingers, so I could easily fish the wire through the stitches and turn the LED so it was right-side out. Mine isn't voice-reactive yet, but that will come soon! Here are instructions so you can finger-knit your very own Blob, and you can also check out Debra's post on her Blob.
Step 1 - Start
Start at the end nearest to the USB dongle. Form 8 loops, one loop per LED with each LED at the top, and twist each at the base three times to lock in the shape of the loop.
Bend the loop in a circle, and wrap the wire going to the USB connector to fix the circle.
Step 2 - Knit
Pull the next LED through the very first loop you created. This one will be a little offset from the middle, and that's OK. For the next one, bend a U-shape with the LED in the center. Pinch it with your fingers, and pull it through the next loop.
Keep pulling LEDs through loops, and as you go, turn the LED on the strand so that the rounder more translucent "top" is facing out. The Blob will eventually start to form a tube shape. You may need to bend each "stitch" inward as you go, to prevent the previous one from popping out (or in knitting parlance, "dropping stitches"). You'll figure out what kind of bends work for you as you go!
Step 3 - Finishing
When you have 2 LEDs left on the strand, fish the end of the strand through all the "active" stitches - the ones that don't have another stich on top of them. Pull through and cinch as much as is practical.
Wrap the last few inches of the strand around the cinched hole to fix it in place.
Add googly eyes! The end you just finished is the head, it's a little more practical for the string and USB dongle to exit the "tail" end. You might want to hot glue the googly eyes to keep them on, or add tape to the underside.
Congratulations! You've now made your very own Blob. GeekMomProjects will also be writing up more instructions for how to create a Blob with the zip-tie swirl method, and for adding sound reaction with a Micro:Bit, and we're working on more microcontroller options, so keep checking out this blog and her blog and follow us on twitter and GeekMomProjects on twitter for updates!
Want some company for making your Blob? Join Debra and I for our Build-A-Blob-Workshop livestream next week Oct 13 2021 at 5pm Pacific (which will also be recorded), watch it here.
The Alpenglow Industries FUnicorn is a fun way to share a special message, and the Full Kit adds to the fun with a big F’ing button, for remote detonation of your F bombs. But what if you want to make the FUnicorn your own – and create a more-than-one-trick pony? Also included in the Full Kit are user-solderable headers, so that you can add an Arduino shield and create the equine masterpiece of your dreams*!
*provided that your dreams are compatible with 3v3 I/O
In order to not perforate the FUnicorn’s majestic form on the front of the board, we used surface mount headers rather than through-hole. This cosmetic decision means that you may find the headers harder to solder than other Arduinos you may have come across in the past, but, you can do it! If you believe in FUnicorns, we believe in you!
We recommend using any shield you may have handy to hold everything in place. Tack opposite corners to maintain alignment, then work your way along the rest of the outer pins. If everything is looking good, go ahead and carefully remove the shield. Remember at this point that the headers are only half-soldered, so if you yank it off with full Clydesdale strength, there's a chance that the headers – and even the pads that they are attached to – could come off with it, causing permanent damage. So please wiggle gently! With the shield out of the way, you are now clear to complete the interior pins (below, left). You may experience some balling or other flow issues – feel free to reflow any problematic areas. At this point, your board should look like the below right:
To confirm alignment, go ahead and reattach the shield, verifying that all of the pins are correctly seated and insertion/removal does not require an unreasonable amount of force. At this point, you are ready to put the U in FUnicorn, and give your idea wings (which would perhaps make it an FAlicorn?!)! If you want to be a nerd (don’t worry, we love nerds!) you can sneak ahead by completing Step 3 in our Hackaday instructions, or if you’d prefer to nerd out vicariously, stay tuned for the second part of this series: the making of the Wi-FUnicorn!
by Carrie Sundra
SOT-523. Is that one I can hand-solder, or is that one of those ridiculously tiny packages? SC-89. Is that basically the same as an SC-75, just one has bent pins and one has flat pins? And wait, are those both actually the same as a SOT-523?
If you're been around the block with PCB design, you'll know exactly the frustrating mess of nomenclature I'm talking about. After finally having had enough of it, I spent 3 weeks reasearching standards, poring over countless datasheets, and using Digi-Key's priceless parametric search to bring you...drumroll please....the WHAT THE SOT?! and FOR THE LOVE OF SOD! printed circuit board footprint rulers.
Not only did I want a tool that would help me identify the right size part to put into a design, but I also wanted a tool that would help me identify a drop-in replacement when the inevitable stock issue or obsolescence issue came up. Because there is NOTHING worse than having to re-spin a PCB just to change a footprint!
Did someone say stock issue? With the worldwide parts shortage the electronics industry is currently experiencing, my email has been bombarded by panicked current and past clients who are trying to order boards only to find that 1/3 of the parts are out of stock. Having these handy references on my desk has allowed me to quickly and easily identify alternates and save some manufacturing schedules. Warning: side effects may include your clients or boss thinking you have superpowers.
Here's my process for identifying an alternate. Let's say a trusty N-channel MOSFET in a SOT-523 package that you designed into a board is out of stock for 52 weeks. Your client might be sweating bullets, thinking their manufacturing schedule and income for the next year is completely shot. But you're cool, calm, and collected because you have the WHAT THE SOT?! ruler and Digi-Key's parametric search.
First, you type "transistor" into Digi-Key's search bar, and select "FETs, MOSFETs - Single".
Now to narrow it down from 41k results. Of course we want only parts that are "In Stock" and they should be "Active" so that we can (hopefully) continue to source them for several years to come.
That gets us down to a mere 10k results. Ok, now to the specifics. We want an N-channel FET, and we want it in a SOT-523 or footprint-compatible package. Looking at our trusty WHAT THE SOT?! ruler, we see that there are flat-lead versions that will very likely fit on our board that used a gull-wing part. So we scroll the Package/Case category, using a CNTL-click to select all compatible parts. Check out how the Suppliers have even more names for the packages!
This finally brings us down to a very manageable 25 parts. Now you can go onto other features, like Vgs, Rds(on), etc, to find the most compatible one.
I hope these ruler footprint references help you too! WHAT THE SOT?! has transistor patterns from 3 to 8 pins, from as small as the insanity-sized SOT-883 to the big whopping D3PAK. FOR THE LOVE OF SOD! has diode and passive 2-pin patterns from the finely-ground-salt-sized SOT-962 to the mighty SMC. Each footprint has the more colloquial "small outline transistor" SOT or "small outline diode" SOD size names (with alternates), as well as the equivalent JEDEC "transistor outline" TO or "diode outline" DO names, as well as the Electronics Industry Association of Japan SC names.
You can buy these handy footprint rulers directly from us, from our Tindie Store, or from Digi-Key. We're a Marketplace seller, we ship fast and have a $5 shipping option.
by David "ishotjr" Groom
16x2 character LCDs are a great way to add a visual output to an Arduino project, though they are somewhat inflexible in terms of the information that they are able to display - for example, the character size and font is fixed. Or is it ? By using the 8 available user-defined characters, it's possible to add your own custom glyphs - and if you're clever, you can combine them to completely transform the capabilities of this humble display!
Our own resident clever clogs Carrie published the BigNums2x2 library a while back as a byproduct of another project she was working on. This library redefines the 8 available characters to create Big Numbers which each occupy 2x2 characters! As explained in her original blog post, Carrie was inspired by other, larger examples of the same technique, using 3x2 characters. Combining characters in this way revolutionizes LCD usage, since you can now easily take a reading from across the room, making it ideal for at-a-glance data. One of the most common numeric values that humans like to glance at is temperature data, so I thought it would be fun to create a simple thermometer using a DHT11 and an Arduino Uno, in order to put the library through its paces.
I happened to have an unused Adafruit RGB backlight positive LCD 16x2 handy, so I soldered on the headers, then followed their wiring guide to ensure everything was working. The particular LCD that I'm using is RGB-backlit, but to keep the project somewhat generic and applicable to standard single-color displays, I resisted the urge to get fancy, and only wired up the R(ed). There's quite a bit of wiring required, with 12 of the 16 pins populated on the standard LCD (the RGB adds another two pins for controlling green and blue). The Adafruit tutorial has an excellent description of how to hook it up, as well as what each pin does, but here's a cheat sheet so that you can check your work, or skip the long version:
Once you've got the LCD wired up, it's a good idea to give it a quick test before proceeding, so grab the built in HelloWorld example from File->Examples->LiquidCrystal. The Adafruit tutorial uses different pins than the Arduino default, so we'll need to tweak the code slightly; instead of:
const int rs = 12, en = 11, d4 = 5, d5 = 4, d6 = 3, d7 = 2;
LiquidCrystal lcd(rs, en, d4, d5, d6, d7);
LiquidCrystal lcd(7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12);
for the way we wired it. Compile and Upload the sketch, and you should see a lovely "hello, world!" on your LCD. If not, hit us up in the comments and we'll try to help you figure out what went wrong!
Now that we know the LCD is working, let's have a look at the temperature. I'm using the commonly available, inexpensive, DHT11. It's not the fastest or most accurate way to measure temperature, but it's cheap, and good enough for our purposes. Hook the middle ("out") pin on the DHT11 to digital pin 2 on the Arduino, and the + and - pins to 5V and GND respectively. You'll need to install the Adafruit DHT sensor library as well as its dependency, the Adafruit Unified Sensor library - if you've not done this before, Adafruit has an excellent walk-through. With the libraries installed, we can run another quick test sketch like we did for the LCD: open File->Examples->DHT->DHTtester and uncomment this line (15 at the time of writing) by removing the leading forward slashes:
#define DHTTYPE DHT11 // DHT 11
then comment out this line (16) by prefixing it with two forward slashes:
//#define DHTTYPE DHT22 // DHT 22 (AM2302), AM2321
and give it a quick Compile. If you run it, chances are you won't see the expected output on the serial monitor, but as long as it compiled OK, we should be good for now.
After confirming all is well with the basic hardware, it's time to go large! The first step in using the BigNums2x2 library is...well...getting your hands on the library! Like the other libraries that we installed via the Library Manager, we can simply search for "bignums" to locate and install it:
The library comes with two nice examples, which are worth a quick try, like we did with the previous libraries, in order to ensure everything is working. Load File->Examples->BigNums2x2->BigNums2x2FontDemo, and like we did with the basic LCD example, update the pins to:
LiquidCrystal lcd(7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12);
then Compile and Upload to get a feel for the available fonts and how they work. File->Examples->BigNums2x2->BigNums2x2LocDemo is also worth a quick try in order to understand how the positioning functionality works.
Now it's as simple as combining the DHT11 and BigNums2x2 examples to create our own big numeric thermometer remix! Create a new sketch, and add the header portions of each, including the library includes, as follows:
In setup(), we need to initialize the LCD, and DHT:
Then in the never-ending loop(), we just read the temperature value and output it to the LCD via BigNums, over and over, with a 2 second (2000ms) delay between each run:
Now that we have our temperature values outputting via BigNums2x2, let's get a little fancy. The numeric value alone is useful if you're completely familiar with the context (and you probably are, since you wrote the code!), but most temperatures will indicate which scale they are using in order to eliminate ambiguity. Although we're using BigNums, there's nothing stopping us from using plain ol' LCD characters alongside their chonkier sistren, so let's add a small °F legend to the right of our temperature value. To do this, we'll shift the position of our BigNums two to the left, plus use (char)223 in order to tell lcd.print that we want to use the ° character; replace bigNum.print(f); with the following 5 lines:
Behold, a pretty decent-looking thermometer, which can easily be viewed across a room:
If Celsius is more your thing, just swap dht.readTemperature(true) to false, and the F character to C. Or you could get really fancy and cycle between the two, or add a button to toggle them, or calculate the heat index with computeHeatIndex(), or ... well, let us know what crazy things you come up with in the comments below!
Alrighty! We're onto our last installment (for now). Are you have buyer's remorse yet? Are you wondering exactly where your $7k plus $2k yearly maintenance fees are going? Are you ready to kick whoever thinks getting images onto circuit boards isn't necessary or important? Me too!
Saving Your Image for the Future
Now that you have a really nice image in Altium using Method 1 or Method 2, you may want to save it to use it again, especially if the image happens to be a logo! There are 2 ways you can go about this.
That about wraps it up. There used to be some script that imported logos into Altium as a bitmap, but I never had very good results with it and am not sure it's still supported.
Got yet another way of creating a logo or image in Altium? Let us know in the comments!
Method 2 - BMP, JPG, or PNG using Microsoft Word
We're kicking it old-school in this one using good old Microsoft tools, Paint and Word. Buckle up!
In Method 1, we went over how to import images with smooth edges, keeping them smooth and resizable, and with a low vertex count. In this method, we'll go over the best way to import images that are more complex, where it's OK if they look a little pixelated. Again, if you have better ways of doing this, tell us in the comments!
Part A - Quick & Easy PNG from a Word doc
Let's say you have a PNG image already completely ready for import. It should be either a full monochrome or a grayscale image, and the grey/black pixels should be the ones that you'll want to reproduce in silk. Even though I only used "black paint" to create the below image, it contains a fair bit of grey to make the rough areas appear lighter, and to make the edges of the heart appear smooth.
Part B - JPG to BMP with Paint and Word
This goes through importing a photo into Altium. The original image is a jpeg, from a Notorious RBG meme. I did this the weekend after she died. Yes, I create circuit boards for mental health.
You might think that instead of Saving As, you could just go to Image Properties and select “Black and White” instead of color. You would be wrong. This is what happens.
If you're wondering, I haven't released these boards yet, I have one revision to make. They'll be really cool when ready, though, I promise! If you want to be notified, sign up for our newsletter.
But wait! There's more! What? Really? Just a bit. We talk about how to save your nice shiny image for future use in Part 3.
What - you think paying $7000 once plus $2000 yearly for THE premium circuit board layout software on the market would mean it would be no big deal to stick a logo or graphics on your PCB? Or at least that your money was enough to pay them for a nice step-by-step tutorial? HA. Think again. It's such a painful process that I finally had to make myself a cheat sheet, which I continuously add to as I figure out new tricks. And then last week I spent way too much time on the heart design above and was like - fuck it. I'm sharing this with the world because it's just ridiculous that importing graphics is this much of a pain in the ass. So if you've banged your head against the wall importing a logo into Altium Designer, here's a How To guide with 2 different ways, using a bitmap, png, jpg, and dxf. Got another method? Got improvements on the below? Tell me in the comments! For the Love of Bob, no one should have to go through hours of misery trying to figure this out.
Also - kudos to the KiCad designers and whoever made their import tool. While it could be better, it puts Altium to shame.
Method 1 - PNG to DXF
I think this is the best method I've been able string together. It's best for an image with very clear edges, in which a clean outline can be created from the image or image components. For anything that has pixelated or rough edges (think a wood-carved ink stamp), this method creates a dxf (and therefore final image polygon) with waaaaaay to many vertices. Altium has a hard time handling this and you’ll bog the entire program down and cause crashes. For something a little “rougher” - hand-drawn, or a graphic from a photo - proceed to Method 2.
The "# 1 ! " were all imported from the DXF according to this process. The "1" and "!" were converted to Regions instead of Polygons, since they didn't need cutouts. Curious about the rough heart outline? That was imported according to Method 2 - Bitmaps to Copy/Paste from Word. The smooth heart board outline was drawn by hand in Altium, outlining the rough heart by using the Arc (Any Angle) tool and a couple of straight lines. I had tried to use an imported dxf for the board outline, and everything seemed fine. I saved my work, shut down Altium properly, then when I opened it the next day, I was greeted with the following vision of pink puke:
WTF, Altium? Pro tip: at this point I closed the PCB file and went into the History folder in my project, and started unzipping previous saves until I found one that was normal. Fortunately, it just seemed to have barfed when I created the board outline. So I decided to play it safe and draw a low-vertex-count one by hand. That one has been fine.
We've been keeping these a secret for almost three years now, and oh man, are we stoked to finally be able to release these ponies into the wild! The FUnicorn (we say eff-unicorn) started as a very quickly made white elephant gift exchange gag gift, but we had so much darned fun making them, we decided to do a few revisions, and make them fully arduino-compatible. Check out our little movie and enjoy!
FUnicorns are for sale on our Tindie storefront and more info is on our FUnicorn page. We even made a Social Distance version for ourselves.
I Voted Blinky Badges are here!
You may have noticed something new and fun on our homepage - inspired by the "I Voted" stickers, we made blinky badges. Now you can show your pride in voting, and encourage others to vote, day after day before November 3rd!
What are they?
They're wearable circuit boards that you can "pin" to your clothes using 2 super-strong magnets. We have a pre-assembled version and a solder-it-yourself kit, and all have an ON/OFF button and a BLINK/SOLID button, in case you're sensitive to flashing lights or just don't feel like blinking at the moment. All come with a battery and the two magnets used for "pinning".
My Voting Story
Voting is important to me now because I grew up in a community of people who were mostly disenfranchised by voting. I grew up in the US Virgin Islands, a US territory, where the US citizens who reside there are stripped of their right to vote. I say it like that for a reason - I think people tend to easily "other" people living in US territories thinking either "oh they aren't acutally US citizens" or "no one really lives there, it's just a place people go on vacation." Both of those are very very wrong impressions. Many families have lived there for generations, and anyone born in the USVI or Puerto Rico is a US citizen. If YOU are a stateside-living US citizen and decided to move to the USVI tomorrow, you would not be able to vote for President and would have no voting representation in Congress. Yeah. You can move to Peru and still vote, but you cannot vote if you move to a territory of the United States. If you have any doubt this is due to racism against Black and brown people, read this Harvard Law Review article and some of the language used by - I shit you not - Professor Christopher Columbus Langdell, proclaiming that Puerto Rico and the USVI were "inhabited by alien races."
So the first election I was eligible to vote in because I moved to California, was the year 2000. And I was like "whatever, who cares" because frankly, the federal government of the United States is dismissive of its territories, so I was pretty dismissive of it too. But then a friend had an election night party, but only if you voted and he threatened to check stubs at the door (this friend is Adam Rakunas, he now writes some fun sci-fi with female protagonists, check him out). Well, a party with good friends and good food was relevant to my interests, so that's why I registered to vote and voted in that election - the first in a long time where the popular vote went against the electoral college and yes, my just-out-of-college-self was like, "see, this is bullshit, I told you so!" But despite that, I still continued to vote in presidential elections, and then I started to vote in midterms, and then I started to actually give a shit about voting.
Yes, I should have given a shit earlier. I shouldn't have HAD to been peer-pressured into it. This story isn't a shining example of inspiration. I wanted to share it because I know there are a millions reasons to be disenfranchised - feeling that your country doesn't give a shit about you, feeling like it's always a choice between bad and worse. But it is a choice, and some people don't even get that. And your vote absolutely matters at the local level - our mayor race was won by only about 40 votes in 2016.
I still think there are serious problems with the electoral college system, but voting is the main weapon I have. Even if it's dull as a spoon, I'm still going to use it. It's the LEAST I can do. If you've got a disenfranchised friend, keep working at them. It may only take a bribe of some cookies or beer. And please remember, voting is a privilege, it's not a guaranteed right. Please exercise the privilege you have.